Can you give me short summary abstract and conclusion onthe below Individuals have a legal right to

Can you give me short summary abstract and conclusion onthe below Individuals have a legal right to privacy, in particular a rightto control certain information about themselves, to shelter aspectsof their lives from public scrutiny, and to make personal decisionsautonomously, free from illegitimate influence. Shaw and Barry seemto assume that we also have a moral right to privacy and argue thatorganizations shouldn’t infringe on an individual’s personal sphereunless they can justify that infringement. A firm is legitimatelyinterested in whatever significantly influences job performance,but there is no precise definition of “significant influence.”Organizations may be invading privacy when they pressure employeesto contribute to charities, do volunteer work, or participate inwellness programs.

Information-gathering on employees can be highly personal andsubject to abuse. The critical issue here is informed consent ,which implies deliberation and free choice. Deliberation requiresthat employees be provided all significant facts concerning theinformation-gathering procedure and understand their consequences.Free choice means that the decision to participate must bevoluntary and uncoerced. Polygraph tests, personality tests, drugtests, and the monitoring of employees on the job can intrude intoemployee privacy. The exact character of these devices, therationale for using them to gather information in specificcircumstances, and the moral costs of doing so must always becarefully evaluated. Health and safety remain of foremost moralconcern in the workplace. Employers have a moral obligation not toexpose their workers to needless risk, and employees have a rightto know about and refuse hazardous work. The scope of occupationalhazards, including shift work and stress, and the number ofemployees harmed by work-related injuries and diseases are greaterthan many people think. Enforcement of existing regulations has toooften been lax. Management style greatly affects the workenvironment. Managers who operate with rigid assumptions abouthuman nature or who devote themselves to infighting and politicalmaneuvering damage employees’ interests. Day-care services andreasonable parental-leave policies also affect working conditions.Despite the genuine need for and the ethical importance of both daycare and flexible work arrangements for parents, only a handful ofcompanies make serious efforts to provide them. Studies reportextensive job dissatisfaction at all levels. Various factorsinfluence satisfaction and dissatisfaction on the job. Redesigningthe work process can enhance the quality of work life, thewell-being of workers, and even productivity.The employmentcontract creates various obligations to one’s employer. Inaddition, employees often feel loyalty to the organization.Conflicts of interest arise when employees have a personal interestin a transaction substantial enough that it might reasonably beexpected to affect their judgment or lead them to act against theinterests of the organization. When employees have financialinvestments in suppliers, customers, or distributors with whom theorganization does business, conflicts of interest can arise.Company policy usually determines the permissible limits of suchfinancial interests. Insider trading refers to buying or sellingstocks based on nonpublic information likely to affect stockprices. Insider trading seems unfair; it can injure other investorsand undermine public confidence in the stock market. In practice,determining what counts as insider trading is not always easy, butit typically involves misappropriating sensitive information. Somewriters defend insider trading as performing a necessary anddesirable economic function. Proprietary data refers to anorganization’s information that can’t be used by others withoutpermission. Increasingly, problems arise as employees in high-techoccupations with access to sensitive information and trade secretsquit and take jobs with competitors. Proprietary-data issues pose aconflict between two legitimate rights: the right of employers tokeep certain information secret and the right of individuals towork where they choose. A bribe is payment in some form for an actthat runs counter to the work contract or the nature of the workone has been hired to perform. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Actprohibits corporations from engaging in bribery overseas. Briberygenerally involves injury to individuals, competitors, or politicalinstitutions and damage to the free-market system. The followingconsiderations are relevant in determining the moral acceptabilityof gift giving and receiving: the value of the gift, its purpose,the circumstances under which it is given, the position andsensitivity to influence the person receiving the gift, acceptedbusiness practice, company policy, and what the law says. Employeeshave duties to their employers, and they may also have morespecific obligations based on the business or professional rolesand responsibilities they have assumed. In addition, they have thesame elementary moral obligations that all human beingshave—including the obligation not to injure others and to betruthful and fair. Balancing our obligations to employer ororganization, to friends and coworkers, and to third partiesoutside the organization can create conflicts and dividedloyalties. In resolving such moral conflicts, we must identify therelevant obligations, ideals, and effects and decide where theemphasis among them should lie. Whistle – blowing refers to anemployee’s informing the public about the illegal or immoralbehavior of an employer or organization. Whistle-blowers frequentlyact out of a sense of professional responsibility. According toNorman Bowie, an act of whistleblowing can be presumed to bemorally justified if it is done from a moral motive; if thewhistleblower has, if possible, exhausted internal channels beforegoing public; if the whistle-blower has compelling evidence; if thewhistle-blower has carefully analyzed the dangers; and if thewhistleblowing has some chance of success. Prudentialconsiderations based on self-interest can conflict with moralconsiderations, which take into account the interests of others.Some sacrifices of self-interest would be so great that moralconsiderations must give way to prudential ones. But employees mustavoid the temptation to exaggerate prudential concerns, therebyrationalizing away any individual moral responsibility to thirdparties. Legislation and changes in corporate culture can reducethe personal sacrifices that whistle-blowers must make. Attached

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