Exploring the Literature




Using the following table—search the 5 databases based on your PICOT Question—under findings note the number of relevant articles found—under features discuss what you liked about that database. ON the discussion board summarize your search—attach your chart for those that would like to see your search.

Exploring the Literature

Picot Question: For elderly over age 65, does educating healthcare professionals about ageism positively or negatively impact functional ability during the elderly’s stay in institutionalized setting

Research Tool Search Tips Search Terms & Limits Findings Features

CINAHL is an SSU subscription-only resource that offers full text access to;336 scholarly journals and indexes over 3,000 journals from the fields of nursing and allied health.

  • Look at the Major Subject Heading in the Full Record
  • Use the Limits Feature:
    • Example: Publication Type=Systematic Review
  • Try the CINAHL Heading search:
Keyword search:


CINAHL Heading search:



PubMed is a free health science citation & abstracts index from the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

  • Look at MeSH Terms in Full Record
  • Use the Limits Feature:
    • Examples: Article Type=Meta-Analysis; Age=All Adult
  • Look for the open access Free articles!
Keyword search:


MESH search:


Cochrane Library

Cochrane Library provides access to the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews.Full text of reviews are subscription only.Index/summaries are a public resource.

  • Use the Simple Search and the Advance Search Features
  • Allows you to search with MeSH Terms
  • Check out the New Reviews

Browse reviews by topic

Keyword search:



MESH search:


National Guidelines


The National Guideline Clearinghouse™ (NGC) is a public resource for evidence- based clinical practice guidelines.

  • Detailed search provides limits and advance search features
  • Browse by Disease/Condition or Treatment/Intervention
  • Add guidelines to “My Collection” and select Compare Guidelines to view side-by-side comparisons of principle data
Keyword search:

Also browse by:

TRIP Database

TRIP is a clinical search engine to locate publicly available clinical evidence.

  • Limit to:
  • Systematic Reviews
  • Guidelines-US
Keyword search:


PICOT Statement Paper




A PICOT starts with a designated patient population in a particular clinical area and identifies clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care. The intervention should be an independent, specified nursing change intervention. The intervention cannot require a provider prescription. Include a comparison to a patient population not currently receiving the intervention, and specify the timeframe needed to implement the change process.

Formulate a PICOT statement using the PICOT format provided in the assigned readings. The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your capstone project.

In a paper of 500-750 words, clearly identify the clinical problem and how it can result in a positive patient outcome.

Make sure to address the following on the PICOT statement:

  1. Evidence-Based Solution
  2. Nursing Intervention
  3. Patient Care
  4. Health Care Agency
  5. Nursing Practice

Clinical problem/issue is identified based on key concepts that define evidence-based practice or clinical experience. Articles are cited to support the need for change in nursing practice. The identified problem/issue can be resolved, or a patient outcome can show a marked improvement through a nursing intervention.

Clinical problem/issue description includes a developed and thorough explanation of the problem/issue, the setting, the patient population, and the rationale for why it is a problem/issue. The identified clinical problem/issue explains the following elements with detail and clarity: evidence-based solution, nursing intervention, and improved patient care consistent with specific health care agency resulting in nursing practice change. Sound rationale is provided in the discussion of the clinical problem/issue resolution.

PICOT statement clearly focuses on the resolution of a clinical problem/issue and aims at improving patient care through the application of an evidenced-based nursing intervention.

Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, and Time are comprehensive and thoroughly developed with supporting details.

Discussion responses

Response Guidelines RB Read the post of the other learners and respond. In your response, explain why you decided to respond to this particular post. Provide feedback on the learner’s PICO(T) question. Is there something they could do to make it better? Your response must be a minimum of 200 words in length. your post must be supported by citing two peer-reviewed an outside source, using APA formatting. Writing a Problem Question In home care (P), how does retention interviews (I), compared to a current model without retention interviews (C) affect job satisfaction with home care nurses. (O) “P” = Population- Will be home care nurses. The specific agency will be Northwell at home (formerly Northshore lij Home care) using the registered nurses of their Staten Island office. “I” = Intervention: The intervention will be to use retention interviews to increase current job satisfaction among the registered nurses “C” = Comparison: will be to compare current job satisfaction which does not have a use of a retention interview, with a evidence based practice of using retention interviews to help increase satisfaction “O” = Outcome(s): is the registered nurses will have increased job satisfaction with using retention interviews. “T” = Time: I would be using the minimum amount of time / capstone hours to implement the change and reevaluate job satisfaction. The gap is practice low job satisfaction with Homecare nurses. The question at hand would be to come up with a solution to increase overall job satisfaction. The determination of the need of increased job satisfaction came from current and ongoing complaints from staff and the most recent results of the employee engagement survey which alerted management that decreased satisfaction is a growing problem. Currently Northwell at home agency has a anonymous employee engagement survey, administered by Press Ganey. According to Dempsey and Reilly (2016) Press Ganey is a provider of patient experience measurement, performance analytics, and strategic advisory solutions for healthcare organizations. Press Ganey measures nurse engagement through a online survey designed to assess multiple facets of the nurse experience, including nurse engagement, nurse job satisfaction, and the nurse work environment. (Dempsey $ Reilly, 2016). This survey is the documented data available from Northwell at home’s home care organization. In addition, Northwell at home is having an increased amount of sicks calls and Human resources / management complaints regarding work load. Each complaint is handled on an individual basis as they are made. In a study by Maiko, Noriko, & Yukari (2016) a look at collegial support in regards to a higher retention rate is evaluated. It gives statistical data of how Homecare nurses have a higher turnover rate than the hospital. The objective of this study was to determine the reasons that the home care nurses had low retention and satisfaction rates related to perceptions of collegial support. Reasons of low satisfaction included lack of support of co-workers and as well as a hinderance of dialogue in the work place. Knowing that this is an issue in the profession of home care nurses, implementing retention interviews to both provide dialogue and to help uncover other areas that may be a concern to the home care staff is the reason for this capstone study. Another study that states a need for change is by Twigg,& McCullough (2014) where nurse retention is analyzed and a review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in in nursing is revealed. This study looks at the administrative interventions that improve staff retention and satisfaction. One area of need for satisfaction was an increased governance structure that can flow information between staff nurses and those in leadership. These types of structures provide access to the nursing executive and give an opportunity for nurses to voice their concerns (Twigg,& McCullough, 2014). A structure that could result in closing the gap of issues noted in Twigg & McCullough’s study mention above would be a retention interview. This would provided communications as well as pass information, suggestions and complaints off to management to let the nurses have a voice and make them feel a platform is being provided for a positive practice environment. The previous mentioned issues are the reason for the formation of the PICTO question. Reference Dempsey, C., & Reilly, B. A. (2016). Nurse Engagement: What are the Contributing Factors for Success? Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 21(1), 8. doi:10.3912/OJIN.Vol21No01Man02 Maiko, N., Noriko, Y., & Yukari, T. (2016). How does collegial support increase retention of registered nurses in homecare nursing agencies? a qualitative study. BMC Nursing, 151-8. doi:10.1186/s12912-016-0157-3 Twigg, D., & McCullough, K. (2014). Nurse retention: A review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in clinical settings. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 51(1), 85-92. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.05.015 Response Guidelines DC Read the post of the other learners and respond. In your response, explain why you decided to respond to this particular post. Provide feedback on the learner’s PICO(T) question. Is there something they could do to make it better? Your response must be a minimum of 200 words in length. your post must be supported by citing two peer-reviewed an outside source, using APA formatting. Writing a Problem Question In the millennial employee cohort (P), how do millennial work ethic, attitude, values, and expectations (I) compare to preceding generations’ workers (C) while endeavoring to reach an end result of increased retention rates (O) among the millennial employees within the Central Texas Veterans Health Administration? “P” population is represented by the millennial employee cohort. “I” intervention speaks to the millennial presence within the organization. “C” comparison between the millennial employee cohort and the generations that preceded it. “O” outcome is referencing the increased retention of millennial employees. “T” time is represented by 100 contact hours during the capstone practicum. The proposed PICOT question is based upon a clinical inquiry in the form of a meaning question. Meaning questions ask how an experience influences an outcome, the scope of a phenomenon, or perhaps the influence of culture on healthcare (Melnyk, Fineout-Overholt, 2014). The evidence-based research of this capstone project will indicate the investment required in making a commitment towards gaining a deeper understanding of the next generation of workers who will have a major influence on the culture and function of the healthcare work environment. Reference Melnyk, B., Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014). In evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp 24-39.
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PICOT Project




Submit a formal project proposal using APA format. The paper should include all topics below and while your paper will be in APA format an example to emulate is on page 248 of Melnyk, B. & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins-LWW. ISBN: 9781451190946

  1. Introduction
  2. The Spirit of Inquiry Ignited
  3. The PICOT Question Formulated
  4. Search Strategy Conducted
  5. Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Performed
  6. Evidence Integrated with Clinical Expertise and Patient Preferences to Inform a Decision and Practice Change Implemented
  7. Outcome Evaluated
  8. Project Dissemination
  9. Conclusion

The PICOT question is For elderly over age 65 (P), does educating healthcare professionals about ageism (I) positively or negatively (C) impact functional ability (O) during the elderly’s stay in institutionalized setting (T).

Nursing Research :Nursing Situation and Formulate a PICOT Question




Evidence-based systematic literature review and analysis is conducted to respond to a patient problem that requires a solution. Such a review of the literature includes a focused, systematic review from library databases to gather the most current research literature. In this exercise, you are asked to review literature relevant to the US Heath care system. (Note: You will have made progress in gathering literature for the paper later in the course). The most common way to display literature is with an evidence-based literature table. The table is analyzed to provide recommendations for guidelines and standard of care for the patient problem. Thus, you can contribute to your agency with improved patient care procedures and policy that ultimately can inform quality of care. An important initial step to effectively and efficiently search the literature is to formulate a PICOT Question. The kind of PICOT question selected is based upon what kind of patient care problem/issue you wish to resolve.

Address “Diabetes type 2 Management for Adult patients” and write a 1page APA format with references in-text citation APA format including the below info

; the following sections in the posting: (a) brief nursing situation, (b) the kind of PICOT question, and (c) the actual PICOT question.

  • Post to the discussion area a brief nursing situation, the kind of PICOT question, and the actual PICOT question using the steps as follows:
    • Step 1-Identify a nursing situation using 3rd person. No use of I statements as this is not a personal reflection of nursing care. As used here, the nursing situation specifies the problem you are attempting to resolve. Here is an example: Example Only: Mr. Jones, a 40 year-old experienced abdominal pain that transverses his abdomen. He was returning to the ER for the third time during the month with bloating and moderate pain. He has a no history of previous GI problems.The staff identifies his return as typical of a frequent flyer, though Mr. Jones states that he does not use illegal substances nor does he like to use the ER. Upon further history, Mr. Jones says he eats sushi at least three times a week.
    • Step 2-Specify the kind of PICOT Question (1-2 statements). The kind of question specifies the purpose for the review of evidence. Kinds include the following categories: intervention or therapy,etiology, diagnosis or diagnostic test, prognosis or prediction, meaning (Seethe Stillwell, Fineout-Overholt, Melnyk, & Williamson , 2010 article. View the Templates and Definitions for PICOT Questions Table, p. 60). Here is an example:Intervention or therapy is indicated that recognizes the background question o f what is the best method for accurate GI assessment and diagnosis in nonspecific GI distress.
    • Step 3-Finally, specify the PICOT Question in the correct format using the template in the 3rd column of the Templates and Definitions for PICOT Questions table. (See the Stillwell, Fineout-Overholt, Melnyk, & Williamson , 2010 article. See the Templates and Definitions for PICOT Questions Table, p. 60). Think of the PICOT as the foreground question. Not all PICOT questions include time and time is included to show the end of the project measurement. Here is an example:In adults with nonspecific GI distress (P), how does a GI pain assessment team (I) compared with usual assessment (C) affect ER recidivism (O)during a 3-month period (T).
    • Follow the directions in the discussion area. All students are required to complete an initial post and respond to one other student’s posting. The focus of the PICOT discussion is to assess the content of the PICOT question (meets template format) and whether it fits the nursing situation. In addition, other helpful comments include providing key words, a reference, or information about guidelines/and standards of practice.

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