Compare your design with the MPLambdaS networking technology where a ‘wavelength’ itself is used…

1- Read about MPLS and GMPLS. Design a networking technique utilizing MPLS in optical networks. Can you think of an ‘opticalMPLS’? Compare your design with the MPLambdaS networking technology where a ‘wavelength’ itself is used as a label (and thus is more oriented for circuit switched optical networks). How does MPLambdaS handle IP packets? How does your ‘optical-MPLS’ handle IP packets? 2- Read about OTN and compare with SONET and MPLS. (a) What are the pros and cons? (b) How do you achieve signaling? (c) How do you manage performance? 3- Consider the networks of figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 below. Explain the topology of each and then answer which of these connection networks can support the following simultaneously. (a) Connection from node 2 (or b) on l1 to node 1(or a) Connection from node 2 (or b) on l2 to node 3 (or c) Connection from node 2 (or b) on l3 to node 3 (or c) (b) Connection from node 1 (or a) on l1 to node 2(or b) Connection from node 2 (or b) on l1 to node 1 (or a) Connection from node 3 (or c) on l3 to node 3 (or c) (c) Connection from node 1 (or a) on l1 to node 2(or b) Connection from node 2 (or b) on l1 to node 1 (or a) Connection from node 1 (or a) on l3 to node 1(or a) Connection from node 2 (or b) on l2 to node 2 (or b) 4- (a) Consider a Fully-Meshed (all-to-all) data center network for 5 nodes (5 racks) and five servers on each rack. If you would like to achieve allto-all interconnects between the five servers in the same rack using the top-of-therack (ToR) switch at 10 Gb/s each link, and if you also would like to achieve rack-torack interconnects between the 5 racks also using the ToR switch at 10 Gb/s each link, what is the radix number of the top of the rack switch and how many transceivers do the ToR switches need in the data center network? If each ToR switch adds 10 microsecond latency due to store-and-forward of packets, what is the total latency for server-to-server traffic for the servers in different racks (inter-rack traffic) ignoring the distance between the servers or racks (assume infinite speed of light)? If the transceivers on each link consume 35 pJ/bit, and if each ToR switch consume 100 pJ/bit, how much power is consumed in the data center network? (b) Repeat (a) for 128 racks, with 128 servers in each rack. (c) repeat (a) for 128 racks with 32 servers in each rack. 5- Consider a fat-tree network, prove the statements in the lecture note: • Fat-Tree: a special type of Clos Network – K-ary fat tree: three-layer topology (edge, aggregation and core) – Split fat tree into k pods – each pod consists of (k/2)2 servers & 2 layers of k/2 k-port switches – each edge switch connects to k/2 servers & k/2 aggr. Switches – each aggr. switch connects to k/2 edge & k/2 core switches – (k/2)2 core switches: each connects to k pods – Each pod supports non-blocking operation among (k/2)2 hosts – Each source and destination have (k/2)2 paths – k-port switch supports k2/4 servers 6- For a Fat-tree network of 128 racks in four pods as shown below, consider cases 32×32 TOR switches with 10 Gb/s line cards. (a) Repeat problem 5 (c) for this Fat-Tree network if 1:1 oversubscription is utilized. (b) Repeat problem 5 (c) for this Fat-Tree network if 3:1 oversubscription is utilized. Consider both inter-pod and intra-pod traffic for latency values. 7- Follow the discussions regarding F4 and F16 Facebook data center networks and provide power consumption estimates and latency values using the values you can find on Tomahawk switches and transceivers. https://engineering.fb.com/data-center-engineering/f16-minipack/

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