Evaluating Hypotheses

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Write responses to each of the following questions based on the readings and lectures, which come from both this module and the previous module. Answer the questions fully and in detail (supporting your answers with reasons).

1) Explain what perceptual constancies (size and color) are. How can they cause us to have misleading visual perceptions?

2) Explain and discuss confirmation bias and error aversion. How can these biases cause us to hold on to false beliefs?

3) Explain and discuss the role that expectation and belief can play in perception and memory. How can our beliefs and expectations cause us to have misleading or distorted perceptions and memories?

4) Explain the concept of “falsifiability”. Why does Karl Popper think that psychoanalytic theories are unfalsifiable? Explain.

5) Explain the concept of “simplicity”. If simplicity is an important virtue of hypotheses, what implication does that have for large conspiracy theories?

6) Explain the concept of “conservation”. Why is it important for a new hypothesis to be conservative?

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