Sociology Homework

Chapter 11 Discussion

This chapter discusses Race and Ethnicity. The following three terms are defined here.

1.Please give at least one examples of each: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

2.Then explain in detail with your own words, the differences between Segregation, Assimilation, and Pluralism in our society today with examples.

Stereotypes are oversimplified generalizations about groups of people. Stereotypes can be based on race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation—almost any characteristic. They may be positive (usually about one’s own group, such as when women suggest they are less likely to complain about physical pain) but are often negative (usually toward other groups, such as when members of a dominant racial group suggest that a subordinate racial group is stupid or lazy). In either case, the stereotype is a generalization that does not take individual differences into account.

Prejudice refers to the beliefs, thoughts, feelings, and attitudes someone holds about a group. A prejudice is not based on experience; instead, it is a prejudgment, originating outside actual experience. A 1970 documentary called Eye of the Storm illustrates the way in which prejudice develops, by showing how defining one category of people as superior (children with blue eyes) results in prejudice against people who are not part of the favored category.

Discrimination consists of actions against a group of people, while prejudice refers to biased thinking. Discrimination can be based on age, religion, health, and other indicators; race-based laws against discrimination strive to address this set of social problems. Discrimination based on race or ethnicity can take many forms, from unfair housing practices to biased hiring systems. Overt discrimination has long been part of U.S. history. In the late nineteenth century, it was not uncommon for business owners to hang signs that read, “Help Wanted: No Irish Need Apply.” And southern Jim Crow laws, with their “Whites Only” signs, exemplified overt discrimination that is not tolerated today.

 

Chapter 12 Discussion

In this chapter we learn about Gender identity – which is a person’s deeply held internal perception of his or her gender.

Gender Socialization – Children learn at a young age that there are distinct expectations for boys and girls. Cross-cultural studies reveal that children are aware of gender roles by age two or three. At four or five, most children are firmly entrenched in culturally appropriate gender roles (Kane 1996).

Children acquire these roles through socialization, a process in which people learn to behave in a particular way as dictated by societal values, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, society often views riding a motorcycle as a masculine activity and, therefore, considers it to be part of the male gender role. Attitudes such as this are typically based on stereotypes, oversimplified notions about members of a group.

Gender socialization occurs through four major agents of socialization: family, education, peer groups, and mass media.

1.Please describe these four major agents of gender socialization above and give examples from your online textbook.

2.Explain how these agents of socialization have impacts on gender development and identity with examples.

 

Chapter 13 Discussion

In this chapter we learn about Aging in Society.

1.Go to Chapter 12: Page 277 in your book, and define what the term “The Graying of the United States” means.

a.After you define this key term, read the section below and give some facts and statistics about the elderly in our society and the Baby Boomers. Explain with examples.

b.You can also Google some facts about the elderly in our society and share them with the class with examples.

c.In what ways are the elderly a hindrance to society, and in what ways are they a strength to our economic growth? Explain with examples.

2. What do you think it will be like to be ten, twenty, and fifty years older than you are now. What facts are your assumptions about getting older false? What kind of sociological study could you establish to test your assumptions? Explain with examples.

3. Have you known any person who experienced prejudice or discrimination based on age? Think of someone who has been denied an experience or opportunity simply for being to old which is institutional discrimination. Write the story as a case study as if you were a conflict theorist. Explain in detail.

4. Older people suffer discrimination, and often, so do teenagers. Compare the discrimination of the elderly to that of teenagers. What do the groups share in common and how are they different? Analyze this pattern as if you were a functionalist, a symbolic interactionist, and a conflict theorist. Explain in detail with examples.

 

Chapter 14 Discussion

In this chapter we learn about Marriage and the Family which is the first social institution of the course. As you know social institutions are social structures in societies and macro level of analysis in sociology.

In Chapter 14: Page 313 of your book, we study Variations in Family Life.

Read below and answer the weekly question:

“Variations in Family Life – The combination of husband, wife, and children that 99.8 percent of people in the United States believe constitutes a family is not representative of 99.8 percent of U.S. families. According to 2010 census data, only 66 percent of children under seventeen years old live in a household with two married parents. This is a decrease from 77 percent in 1980 (U.S. Census 2011). This two-parent family structure is known as a nuclear family, referring to married parents and children as the nucleus, or core, of the group. Recent years have seen a rise in variations of the nuclear family with the parents not being married. Three percent of children live with two cohabiting parents (U.S. Census 2011).”

1.Discuss in detail the examples of Variations in Family life – such as Cohabitation, Single-Parent Households, and Same-Sex couples.

2.Tell the class five facts of each about the family life of this variations and whether society openly accepts and agrees with these variations with examples.

 

Chapter 15 Discussion

Religion is very important and crucial social institution (social structure) to maintain to members a safe and secure social environment and supportive social network. Please discuss two topics below:

One:

Religions have emerged and developed across the world. Some have been short-lived, while others have persisted and grown. Your book describes several major world religions.

· Hinduism

· Buddhism

· Confucianism

· Taoism

· Judaism

· Islam

· Christianity

The major religions of the world (Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Confucianism, Christianity, Taoism, and Judaism) differ in many respects, including how each religion is organized and the belief system each upholds. Other differences include the nature of belief in a higher power, the history of how the world and the religion began, and the use of sacred texts and objects.

Describe in a brief paragraph one of the seven major religions in the world and how it can exist in our United States Culture. Is secularization (the different forms of religion in our culture) of religion a good thing or dysfunctional part of our overall culture today?

Two:

Religions organize themselves (page 338 of your e-book), their institutions, practitioners, and structures—in a variety of fashions. For instance, when the Roman Catholic Church emerged, it borrowed many of its organizational principles from the ancient Roman military and turned senators into cardinals, for example. Sociologists use different terms, like ecclesia, denomination, and sect, to define these types of organizations. Scholars are also aware that these definitions are not static. Most religions transition through different organizational phases. For example, Christianity began as a cult, transformed into a sect, and today exists as an ecclesia.

Describe how a religion can develop from a cult and then become a sect, then become a denomination, and then an ecclesia. Give an example of each.

Chapter 16 Discussion

In this chapter we learn about Education as a social institution (social structure) in the macro-level of analysis. One aspect of education sociologists look at is, “Access to Education” for everyone. Read Chapter 16: page 357 of your book on access to Education.

“Another global concern in education is universal access. This term refers to people’s equal ability to participate in an education system. On a world level, access might be more difficult for certain groups based on class or gender (as was the case in the United States earlier in the nation’s history, a dynamic we still struggle to overcome). The modern idea of universal access arose in the United States as a concern for people with disabilities. In the United States, one way in which universal education is supported is through federal and state governments covering the cost of free public education.

Today, the optimal way to include differently abled students in standard classrooms is still being researched and debated. “Inclusion” is a method that involves complete immersion in a standard classroom, whereas “mainstreaming” balances time in a special-needs classroom with standard classroom participation. There continues to be social debate surrounding how to implement the ideal of universal access to education.”

1.Discuss the burden of Universal Access to Education in our country with examples

2.Is it a constitutional right for all citizens of our country? Who pays for the Universal Access to Education? Explain with examples.

3.What does “Human Capital” mean in terms of an educated society? Explain with examples.

4.What are the positive consequences of an educated population? Explain with examples.

5.You might have to Google “human capital” and see how it applies to an educated society. Explain with examples.

 

Chapter 17 Discussion

In this chapter we discus government and politics as a social institution ( social structure/macro level) which has set the priorities and initiatives for the nations.

1.This discussion board is about different forms of government around the world and in our country. Your book describes different forms of government in Chapter 17 on pages 380-383.

The ones defined in your book are: anarchy, monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, and democracy.

a.Choose one of the four forms of government (not anarchy) and find some countries today that describe themselves as one of these forms of government.

b.After finding an example, compare that form of government to the one we have in our country – the U.S. Democracy.

c.Describe the positive and negative aspects of both types of governments in your comparison.

2.Why do people accept traditional authority figures even though these types of leaders have limited means of forcing their power? Explain with examples.

3.Explain how a voter’s social class can affect his or her voting practices with examples.

4.Besides voting, how can U.S. citizens influence political processes and outcomes? Which of these strategies have you personally used? Explain with examples.

5. What is one criticism of functionalist perspective in politics and government? Explain with examples.

6. Explain what is meant by the term “power elite”. Consider its original intention as coined by C. Wright Mills as well as your understanding of it. Explain with examples.

 

Chapter 18 Discussion

This chapter discusses work and the economy as a social institution (social structure/ macro level). So, economy is production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

First let’s discuss the types of economy; Capitalism and Socialism and their similarities and differences.

Capitalism:

-Private ownership of property

-Pursuit of personal profit

-Competition and consumer choice

Socialism:

-Collective ownership of property

-Pursuit of collective goals

-Government control of the economy

a.Then describe to the class how parts of a capitalistic society can be socialistic and how parts of a socialistic society can be capitalistic with examples

b.Give at least two examples of each type of society and how they can each be part of the other.

See Chapter 18: Pages 401 – 404 in your book.

c.How does this relate to “Convergence Theory” on pages 404-405 in your book.

2. Describe the impact a rapidly growing economy can have on families. Explain with examples.

3. How do you think the United States economy will change as we move closer to a technology-driven service economy? Explain with examples.

3. What impact has globalization had on the music you listen to, the books you read, or the movies or television you watch? Explain with examples.

4. Is globalization a danger to local cultures? Why, or why not? Explain with examples.

5. Do you believe we have a true meritocracy in the United States? Why, or why not? Explain with examples.

 

Chapter 19 Discussion

This chapter discusses health and medicine as a social institution (social structure/macro level)which is so important for our college which has so many health professional students. Read Chapter 19: Pages 434 and 435 in your book about U.S. Healthcare and Healthcare elsewhere in the world.

This thread will discuss both topics. Read about “Public Healthcare and Private Healthcare in the United States (page 434).” Then read about “socialized healthcare” and “universal healthcare” in other countries on page 435 in your book.

1.Describe the positive effects of public healthcare in our country and how it relates to both socialized healthcare and universal healthcare in other countries.

a.Be creative and make some suggestions for a new form of healthcare in our nation with examples.

b.What is the best practice for healthcare in the world today? There is no right or wrong answer, just your analysis and observations of what might work in our country with examples.

2.What diseases are the most stigmatized? Which are the least? Is this different in different cultures or social classes? Explain with examples.

3.What do you think are some of the contributing factors to obesity-related diseases in the United States? Explain with examples.

4.What factors contribute to the disparities in health among racial, ethnic, and gender groups in the United States? Explain with examples.

5.Which theoretical perspectives do you think best explains the sociology of health? Why? Explain in detail with examples.

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