Water Quality and Contamination




Required to develop a rough draft for your Final Lab Report, which covers the drinking water quality experiment from the Week Two Lab assignment “Lab 2: Water Quality and Contamination

Lab 2 – Water Quality and Contamination Experiment 1: Drinking Water Quality Bottled water is a billion dollar industry in the United States. Still, few people know the health benefits, if any, that come from drinking bottled water as opposed to tap water. This experiment will look at the levels of a variety of different chemical compounds in both tap and bottled water to determine if there are health benefits in drinking bottled water. POST-LAB QUESTIONS 1. Develop a hypothesis regarding which water sources you believe will contain the most and least contaminants, and state why you believe this. Be sure to clearly rank all three sources from most to least contaminants. Hypothesis = I believe that the Tap Water to have the most contaminates due to being city water and they use a lot chemicals to make the water usable. I believe that the Fiji Bottled Water to have the least contaminates due to being from a natural source. Table 1: Ammonia Test Results Water Sample Test Results (mg/L) Tap Water 0mg Dasani® Bottled Water 0mg Fiji® Bottled Water 0mg © eScience Labs, 2016 Table 2: Chloride Test Results Water Sample Test Results (mg/L) Tap Water 500mg Dasani® Bottled Water 500mg Fiji® Bottled Water 500mg Table 3: 4 in 1 Test Results Total Alkalinity Total Chlorine Total Hardness (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) Tap Water 40mg 4mg 120mg Dasani® Bottled Water 40mg 0mg 0mg Fiji® Bottled Water 40mg 1mg 120mg Water Sample Table 4: Phosphate Test Results Water Sample Test Results (ppm) Tap Water 10ppm Dasani® Bottled Water 0ppm Fiji® Bottled Water 25ppm Table 5: Iron Test Results Water Sample Test Results (ppm) Tap Water 0ppm © eScience Labs, 2016 Dasani® Bottled Water 0ppm Fiji® Bottled Water 0ppm Table 6: pH Results Water Sample Test Results Tap Water 6 Dasani® Bottled Water 3 Fiji® Bottled Water 5 2. Based on the results of your experiment, would accept or reject the hypothesis you produced in question 1? Explain how you determined this. Accept/reject = I reject my hypothesis. Based on my experiment the Dasani had less contaminates. However, the Tap Water does still have the most contaminates. 3. Based on the results of your experiment, what specific differences do you notice among the Dasani®, Fiji®, and Tap Water? Answer = Based on my results of my experiment, the differences that I noticed among the Dasani, Fiji, and the Tap Water would be the following: Dasani was not a hard water, nor had any chlorine or phosphate as Fiji and the Tap Water did. Fiji had less chlorine than Tap Water, and had the most phosphate than Tap Water and Dasani. Tap Water had more chlorine than Dasani and Fiji, and it had less phosphate than Fiji. 4. Based upon the fact sheets provided (links at the end of this document), do any of these samples pose a health concern? Use evidence from the lab to support your answer. Answer = Based upon the facts provided PH can pose a health concern. According to the article wellcare information for you about pH in Drinking Water, “High alkalinity does not pose a health risk, but can cause aesthetic problems, such as an alkali tasted to the water that makes coffee taste bitter; scale build-up in plumbing; and lowered efficiency of electric water © eScience Labs, 2016 hearters.” Chlorine could also be a potential health concern. According to Mastroianni (2011), “The main health effect that comes from drinking to much chlorinated water is bladder cancer” and “Drinking chlorinated water over a long period of time may also cause a person to develop asthmatic conditions.” Phosphates can be a potential health concern. According to Kotosi (1997), “Phosphates are not toxic to people or animals unless they are present in very high levels.” And “Digestive problems could occur from extremely high levels of phosphate.” 5. Based on your results, do you believe that bottled water is worth the price? Use evidence from the lab to support your opinion. Answer = I do not believe that bottled water is worth the price. Each bottle of water, including tap water all have contaminates. They do not truly elimtate them. **NOTE: Be sure to complete steps 1 – 32 of Lab 3, Experiment 1 (the next lab) before the end of this week. Lab 3 involves planting seeds, and if the work is not started this week, your plants will not have time to grow and the lab will not be finished on time.** FACT SHEETS: Please refer to these to answer Question 3. If you use information from any of these, don’t forget to cite and reference it in APA format in your lab. You are also welcome to use additional or alternative credible resources that you locate online if you wish. Ammonia https://www.wqa.org/Portals/0/Technical/Technical%20Fact%20Sheets/2014_Ammonia.pdf Chloride http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chloride.pdf Phosphate http://osse.ssec.wisc.edu/curriculum/earth/Minifact2_Phosphorus.pdf © eScience Labs, 2016 Iron http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/iron.pdf pH https://www.watersystemscouncil.org/download/wellcare_information_sheets/potential_groundw ater_contaminant_information_sheets/9709284pH_Update_September_2007.pdf Alkalinity http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_quality/quality1/28-08-alkalinity.htm Chlorine http://www.watertechonline.com/testing-for-chlorine-in-drinking-water/ Hardness http://des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/pip/factsheets/dwgb/documents/dwgb-3-6.pdf References Mastroianni, J. (2011, October 11). Testing for Chlorine In Drinking Water. Retrieved August 01, 2018, from https://www.watertechonline.com/testing-for-chlorine-in-drinking-water/ https://www.watersystemscouncil.org/download/wellcare_information_sheets/potential_gro undwater_contaminant_information_sheets/9709284pH_Update_September_2007.pdf Kotoski, J. E. (1997). Phosphorus Minifact & Analysis. Retrieved August 01, 2018, from http://osse.ssec.wisc.edu/curriculum/earth/Minifact2_Phosphorus.pdf © eScience Labs, 2016 Week 3 – Assignment Rough Draft of the Final Report You are required to develop a rough draft for your Final Lab Report, which covers the drinking water quality experiment from the Week Two Lab assignment “Lab 2: Water Quality and Contamination .” Please use the Week Three Assignment Template for preparing your rough draft to insure that you include all required components in a well-organized manner. Before completing this Template, view the Tutorial on the Rough Draft of the Final Lab Report Template so that you have a clear picture on how to use the template most effectively. This rough draft must also be reviewed using the Grammarly (https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/44cfa9c0-9498-4229-a25dea3589506182/1/The_Grammarly_Guide_How_to_Set_Up_%26_Use_Grammarly.zip/story.html) tool from the Writing Center to help you identify and correct any mistakes to your rough draft. Be sure to submit a screen shot of the Grammarly report and the corrected rough draft to the Week Three Assignment box. This resource will show you how to take a screen shot on your computer and upload it to Waypoint successfully.  3:52 / 3:52 For a written transcript, click here . Complete the following steps to submit both reports: 1. Carefully read the instructions for your Final Lab Report assignment located within Week Five of the course.. 2. Download the Rough Draft of the Final Lab Report Template and utilize this form to ensure correct formatting and inclusion of all required material. 3. View the Tutorial on the Rough Draft of the Final Lab Report Template so that you can apply the template with success. 4. Use at least two scholarly sources, two credible sources, and your lab manual to support your points. 5. The rough draft must be three to five pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center (http://writingcenter.ashford.edu) . 6. Use the Grammarly tool to proofread your paper before submitting it for grading. Grammarly is a free proofreading program available to all Ashford students. a. To learn how to set up and use Grammarly, watch the Grammarly tutorial (https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/44cfa9c09498-4229-a25d-ea3589506182/1/The_Grammarly_Guide_How_to_Set_Up_%26_Use_Grammarly.zip/story.html) . b. Upload your paper to Grammarly and take a screen shot of your reviewed paper. Need help taking a screen shot? See this handout . c. Save the Grammarly screenshot to your computer and submit it along with your assignment. This means that you will submit two documents to Waypoint: the Grammarly screen shot and your corrected rough draft. Note: Need help using Grammarly? Email the Writing Center at writing@ashford.edu (mailto:writing@ashford.edu) . Note: Please do not use www.grammarly.com to sign up as you will get limited feedback. Ashford University pays for additional fabulous Grammarly services so you don’t have to. If you encounter any problems or technical issues, please contact: support@grammarly.com (mailto:support@grammarly.com) The Rough Draft of the Final Lab Report must contain the following seven sections in this order: 1. Title Page – This page must include the title of your report, your name, course name, instructor, and date submitted. 2. Introduction – This section should discuss why the experiment was conducted. At a minimum, it should contain three paragraphs. One paragraph must cover background information of similar studies that have already been done in the area. This is accomplished by citing existing literature from similar experiments and explaining their results. A second paragraph should discuss an objective or a reason why the experiment is being done. Why do we want to know the answer to the question we are asking? A third paragraph should provide a hypothesis for the experiment conducted, along with your rationale behind that hypothesis. 3. Materials and Methods – This section should provide a detailed description of the materials used in your experiment and how they were used. A stepby-step rundown of your experiment is necessary; however, it should be done in paragraph form, not in a list format. The description should be exact enough to allow for someone reading the report to replicate the experiment, but it should be in your own words and not simply copied and pasted from the lab manual. 4. Results – This section should include the data and observations from the experiment. All tables and graphs should be present in this section. Additionally, there should be at least one paragraph explaining the data in paragraph form. There should be no personal opinions or discussion beyond the results of your experiments located within this section. 5. Discussion – This section should interpret or explain the meaning of your data and provide conclusions. At least three paragraphs should be outlined here. First, a paragraph should be present that addresses whether your hypothesis was confirmed or denied and how you know this. Second, you are to discuss the meaning of your findings in this area utilizing scholarly sources to put the paper into context. For example, how do your results compare with the findings of similar studies? Also, you should discuss if there are any outside factors (i.e., temperature, contaminants, time of day) that affected your results. If so, how could you control for these in the future? Finally, you should discuss any future questions arising from your results and how you might test them with new experiments. 6. Conclusions – This section should provide a brief summary of your work. What are the key take-away points from your study? 7. References – Provide a list of at least two scholarly sources, two credible sources, and your lab manual that will be used in the Final Lab Report. Format your references according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Note: An abstract must be included in the Final Lab Report. However, the abstract should not be included in the rough draft as it is to be written last after the entire paper is fully written. Do not forget this in your Final Lab Report. In addition to the Grammarly (https://www.grammarly.com/edu/signup) tool, you have three tutoring services available: Paper Review, Live Chat, and Tutor E-mail (mailto:writing@ashford.edu?subject=Question%20for%20the%20AWC) . Click on the Writing Center (AWC) tab in the left-navigation menu, in your online course, to learn more about these tutoring options and how to get help with your writing. Writing specialists are here 24/7, every day of the year, ready to support you! • Click HERE (http://www.worldwidewhiteboard.com/w/wb5/php/wb_group_pick.php? puid=1769002&from=%2Fw%2Fwb5%2Fphp%2Fgw.php%3Fid%3D4aad4681acece995fd4cf2e6b6e0944f3c5ba2a4%26vid%3Dashford%26server%3Dblt to instantly chat with an online tutor. • Click HERE (http://www.worldwidewhiteboard.com/w/wb5/php/wb_group_pick.php? puid=1769002&from=%2Fw%2Fwb5%2Fphp%2Fgw.php%3Fid%3Df35b4e94617d9c7a9341d313bf801529497e5d51%26vid%3Dashford%26server%3Dbl to submit your paper for a review. Papers are returned within 24 hours with a revision plan. • Click HERE (mailto:writing@ashford.edu?subject=A%20Question%20for%20the%20AWC) to email us any writing questions. • For additional writing resources like Grammarly (https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/44cfa9c0-9498-4229-a25d-ea358950618 Carefully review the Grading Rubric your assignment. (http://ashford.waypointoutcomes.com/assessment/19613/preview%20) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate Waypoint Assignment Submission The assignments in this course will be submitted to Waypoint. Please refer to the instructions below to submit your assignment. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click on the Assignment Submission button below. The Waypoint “Student Dashboard” will open in a new browser window. Browse for your assignment. Click Upload. Confirm that your assignment was successfully submitted by viewing the appropriate week’s assignment tab in Waypoint. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Waypoint Tutorial ff53b3cc3794/1/Waypoint%20Tutorial.pdf) (https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/dc358708-3d2b-41a6-a000- (https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/dc358708-3d2b-41a6-a000- ff53b3cc3794/1/Waypoint%20Tutorial.pdf) . This tool needs to be loaded in a new browser window The session for this tool has expired. Please reload the page to access the tool again Running Head: Title 1 Title Name SCI 207: Our Dependence upon the Environment Instructor Date Title 2 *This template will provide you with the details necessary to begin a quality Final Lab Report. Utilize this template to complete the Week 3 Rough Draft of the Final Lab Report and ensure that you are providing all of the necessary information and proper format for the assignment. Before you begin, please note the following important information: 1. Carefully review the Final Lab Report instructions before you begin this assignment. 2. The Final Lab Report should cover only the first experiment (Drinking Water Quality) from your Week Two Lab. 3. As you plan your final paper, think about how you can present a fact-based story about water quality issues. For example, consider what common concerns might be regarding water quality, and the role drinking water standards play in protecting our water supplies. 4. For further help, see the Sample Final Lab Report for an example of a final product on a different topic. 5. You may simply replace the text following the bold terms with the appropriate outline information to complete this assignment. Make sure to pay close attention to the information called for and provide all necessary material. Please delete this purple text before submitting your rough draft. Title Introduction Body Paragraph #1 – Background: The rough draft of the introduction should describe the background of water quality and related issues using cited examples. You should include scholarly sources in this section to help explain why water quality research is important to society. When outlining this section, make sure to at least list relevant resources in APA format that will be used in the final paper to develop the background for your experiment. Body Paragraph # 2 – Objective: The rough draft of the introduction should also contain the objective for your study. This objective is the reason why the experiment is being done. Your rough draft should provide an objective that describes why we want to know the answer to the questions we are asking. Make sure the objective ties back to ideas you discussed in the Background, above. Body Paragraph # 3 – Hypothesis: Finally, the introduction should end with your hypothesis. This hypothesis should be the same one that you posed before you began your Drinking Water Quality experiment. You may reword it following feedback from your instructor to put it in better hypothesis format; however, you should not adjust it to reflect the “right” answer. You will not lose points if your hypothesis was wrong; scientists often revise their hypotheses based on scientific evidence following an experiment. In addition to stating the hypothesis, offer your rationale for it; in other words, why did you make that particular hypothesis? Materials and Methods Title Body Paragraph # 1: The rough draft of the materials and methods section should provide a brief description of the specialized materials used in your experiment and how they were used. This section needs to summarize the instructions with enough detail so that an outsider who does not have a copy of the lab instructions knows what you did. However, this does not mean writing every little step like “dip the phosphate test strip in the water, then shake the test strips,” these steps can be simplified to read “we used phosphate test strips to measure phosphate levels in parts per million”, etc. This section should be written in the past tense and in your own words and not copied and pasted from the lab manual. Think cookbook recipe here; you should explain enough of what you did for others to repeat the experiment, but with nothing extra added. Results Tables: The rough draft of the results section should include all the tables used in your experiment. All values within the tables should be in numerical form and contain units (except pH, which does not have any). For instance, if measuring the amount of chloride in water you should report your measurement as 2 mg/L or 0 mg/L, not as two or none. Body Paragraph # 1: The rough draft of the results section should also highlight important results in paragraph form, referring to the appropriate tables when mentioned. This section should only state the results; no personal opinions should be included. A description of what the results really mean should be saved for the discussion. For example, you may report, 0mg/L of chlorine were found in the water, but should avoid personal opinions and interpretations such as, “No chlorine was found in the water, showing it to be cleaner than the other samples.” Discussion Body Paragraph #1 – Hypothesis: The rough draft of this section should interpret your data and provide conclusions. Start by discussing if your hypothesis was confirmed or denied and how you know this. Then consider some of the implications of your results. Given the chemical differences you may have noted between the water samples, are any of the differences causes for concern? Body Paragraph # 2 – Context: The rough draft of your discussion should also relate your results to bigger water concerns and challenges. For example, based on your experiment you might discuss how various bottled water companies use different filtration systems. Or, you could discuss the billion dollar bottled water industry. For example, do you think it is worth it to buy bottled water? Why or why not? Your outline should at least list some of the resources that you plan to utilize in your final paper to put your results into context. Body Paragraph #3 – Variables and Future Experiments: Finally, the rough draft of your results section should also address any possible factors that affected your results, such as taking measurements over two different days instead of all at once. If possible sources of error were present, how might you control for these in the future? You should also propose some new 3 Title questions that have arisen from your results and what kind of experiment(s) might be devised to answer these questions. Conclusions Body Paragraph #1: This section of your rough draft should briefly summarize the key points of your paper. What main message would you like people to take way from this report? References Include at least 2 scholarly and 2 highly credible sources as well as your lab manual, in APA format. 4
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